Some stuff about Starbound I deem non-obvious.

You can…

You should…

What's this…

this little red bar that pops up at night?
This is your body temperature (or something similar). Your screen will whiten and you will lose health quick if this runs low. Stay near heat sources like campfires or equip some warming armor. The sun icon indicates how protective a given piece of armor is.

Where can I get…

space ship fuel?
Your space ship can be fuelled with coal. Yes, coal.
loads and loads of plant fibre?
Try landing on a jungle type planet.
Titanium can be mined on Planets of the gamma sector.